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延迟退休,为何小步渐进(民生三问)

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年07月18日 11:42:41
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( 因)(为)(养)(老)(金)(收)(不)(抵)(支)(吗)(  延)(迟)(退)(休)(受)(多)(因)(素)(影)(响)(,养)(老)(金)(当)(前)(面)(临)(问)(题)(不)(是)(不)(足)(而)(是)(如)(何)(防)(贬)(值)(  记)(者)(:影)(响)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(有)(哪)(些)(因)(素)(?  郑)(功)(成)(:我)(认)(为)(,延)(迟)(或)(调)(整)(法)(定)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(需)(全)(面)(把)(握)(相)(关)(因)(素)(:一)(是)(人)(均)(预)(期)(寿)(命)(。寿)(命)(延)(长)(则)(工)(作)(年)(限)(应)(当)(适)(当)(延)(长)(。二)(是)(劳)(动)(力)(供)(求)(状)(况)(。供)(过)(于)(求)(时)(当)(然)(不)(能)(延)(长)(法)(定)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(,供)(不)(应)(求)(时)(则)(不)(能)(不)(延)(长)(法)(定)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(,当)(供)(求)(关)(系)(发)(生)(变)(化)(后)(,自)(然)(也)(应)(当)(调)(整)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(。三)(是)(受)(教)(育)(年)(限)(。受)(教)(育)(程)(度)(越)(高)(,工)(作)(年)(限)(也)(需)(要)(相)(应)(延)(长)(,否)(则)(便)(是)(人)(力)(资)(源)(的)(巨)(大)(浪)(费)(。四)(是)(人)(口)(老)(龄)(化)(程)(度)(。步)(入)(老)(年)(型)(社)(会)(后)(,基)(于)(代)(际)(公)(平)(与)(可)(持)(续)(发)(展)(的)(需)(要)(,就)(业)(人)(口)(的)(年)(龄)(必)(然)(需)(要)(递)(增)(。五)(是)(性)(别)(平)(等)(。在)(当)(代)(社)(会)(,如)(果)(女)(性)(退)(休)(过)(早)(,或)(者)(与)(男)(性)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(差)(距)(过)(大)(,意)(味)(着)(强)(行)(过)(早)(地)(剥)(夺)(了)(女)(性)(的)(工)(作)(权)(利)(和)(参)(与)(社)(会)(的)(发)(展)(空)(间)(。  就)(我)(国)(而)(言)(,人)(均)(预)(期)(寿)(命)(与)(人)(们)(受)(教)(育)(年)(限)(都)(在)(持)(续)(不)(断)(延)(长)(,劳)(动)(力)(供)(求)(关)(系)(正)(在)(从)(可)(以)(无)(限)(供)(给)(的)(时)(代)(向)(每)(年)(净)(减)(少)(适)(龄)(劳)(动)(人)(口)(数)(百)(万)(的)(时)(代)(转)(变)(,再)(加)(上)(少)(子)(高)(龄)(化)(趋)(势)(不)(可)(逆)(转)(,追)(求)(包)(括)(性)(别)(平)(等)(在)(内)(的)(社)(会)(公)(正)(呼)(声)(日)(益)(高)(涨)(,这)(些)(客)(观)(事)(实)(决)(定)(了)(逐)(步)(延)(迟)(法)(定)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(确)(实)(是)(一)(个)(必)(然)(的)(选)(择)(。  记)(者)(:有)(人)(认)(为)(延)(迟)(退)(休)(是)(因)(为)(养)(老)(金)(收)(不)(抵)(支)(。您)(如)(何)(看)(?  郑)(功)(成)(:我)(一)(直)(不)(赞)(成)(将)(延)(迟)(退)(休)(与)(养)(老)(金)(制)(度)(捆)(绑)(在)(一)(起)(,因)(为)(通)(过)(延)(迟)(退)(休)(来)(解)(决)(养)(老)(金)(支)(付)(难)(题)(的)(看)(法)(是)(本)(末)(倒)(置)(,也)(是)(有)(损)(社)(会)(契)(约)(精)(神)(、直)(接)(减)(损)(公)(民)(权)(益)(的)(做)(法)(。因)(此)(,尽)(管)(延)(迟)(退)(休)(对)(养)(老)(金)(制)(度)(确)(实)(会)(产)(生)(影)(响)(,但)(这)(种)(相)(关)(性)(只)(是)(根)(据)(前)(述)(诸)(因)(素)(调)(整)(法)(定)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(后)(产)(生)(的)(一)(个)(客)(观)(结)(果)(。即)(使)(因)(此)(增)(加)(了)(养)(老)(保)(险)(缴)(费)(收)(入)(,也)(应)(当)(按)(照)(长)(缴)(多)(得)(反)(馈)(于)(参)(保)(者)(。  就)(我)(国)(而)(言)(,截)(至)(2015年)(底)(,全)(国)(社)(保)(基)(金)(理)(事)(会)(积)(累)(的)(养)(老)(战)(略)(储)(备)(金)(已)(超)(1.5万)(亿)(元)(,人)(社)(部)(公)(布)(的)(全)(国)(养)(老)(保)(险)(基)(金)(结)(余)(亦)(达)(4万)(亿)(元)(,养)(老)(保)(险)(基)(金)(结)(余)(还)(在)(逐)(年)(增)(长)(,局)(部)(地)(区)(的)(收)(支)(缺)(口)(只)(是)(全)(国)(统)(一)(的)(法)(定)(制)(度)(被)(地)(区)(分)(割)(所)(异)(化)(了)(的)(不)(良)(结)(果)(。因)(此)(,当)(前)(面)(临)(的)(问)(题)(不)(是)(基)(金)(不)(足)(,而)(是)(如)(何)(防)(止)(基)(金)(贬)(值)(的)(问)(题)(。  记)(者)(:有)(人)(认)(为)(如)(果)(延)(迟)(退)(休)(,缴)(纳)(养)(老)(保)(险)(费)(的)(时)(间)(长)(了)(,领)(取)(养)(老)(金)(的)(时)(间)(短)(了)(,很)(不)(划)(算)(。您)(怎)(么)(看)(?  郑)(功)(成)(:我)(不)(主)(张)(以)(“多)(缴)(少)(支)(”来)(损)(害)(参)(保)(人)(的)(利)(益)(,主)(张)(对)(迟)(延)(退)(休)(者)(应)(当)(有)(利)(益)(上)(的)(补)(偿)(,即)(通)(过)(提)(高)(延)(迟)(退)(休)(者)(的)(养)(老)(金)(待)(遇)(来)(避)(免)(其)(利)(益)(受)(损)(,这)(才)(是)(正)(确)(取)(向)(。如)(果)(政)(策)(制)(定)(者)(只)(有)(“多)(缴)(少)(支)(”的)(“算)(计)(”,其)(本)(身)(就)(失)(去)(了)(公)(正)(。  社)(会)(保)(险)(强)(调)(权)(利)(义)(务)(相)(结)(合)(,只)(有)(用)(群)(体)(的)(力)(量)(才)(能)(真)(正)(化)(解)(个)(体)(的)(风)(险)(,也)(只)(有)(确)(切)(的)(制)(度)(安)(排)(才)(能)(应)(对)(不)(确)(定)(的)(人)(生)(风)(险)(。因)(此)(,任)(何)(改)(革)(都)(不)(应)(当)(动)(摇)(社)(会)(保)(险)(制)(度)(的)(根)(基)(,不)(应)(当)(让)(社)(会)(保)(险)(制)(度)(的)(本)(质)(走)(向)(异)(化)(。  2问)( 延)(迟)(退)(休)(要)(所)(有)(人)(齐)(步)(走)(吗)(  应)(允)(许)(一)(定)(弹)(性)(,重)(体)(力)(劳)(动)(者)(等)(应)(可)(灵)(活)(选)(择)(  记)(者)(:也)(有)(一)(些)(人)(担)(心)(,如)(果)(延)(迟)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(的)(话)(,今)(后)(会)(影)(响)(年)(轻)(人)(的)(就)(业)(。您)(赞)(同)(这)(种)(看)(法)(吗)(?  郑)(功)(成)(:如)(果)(退)(休)(人)(员)(不)(再)(就)(业)(,则)(一)(人)(退)(休)(等)(于)(空)(出)(了)(一)(个)(就)(业)(岗)(位)(,延)(迟)(退)(休)(意)(味)(着)(等)(量)(就)(业)(岗)(位)(置)(换)(的)(延)(迟)(,但)(考)(虑)(到)(当)(前)(的)(情)(形)(,这)(种)(简)(单)(的)(替)(代)(性)(结)(论)(并)(不)(成)(立)(:  其)(一)(,一)(些)(退)(休)(人)(员)(再)(就)(业)(在)(各)(地)(都)(是)(一)(个)(客)(观)(事)(实)(,这)(实)(质)(上)(部)(分)(消)(减)(了)(延)(迟)(退)(休)(对)(就)(业)(的)(影)(响)(。因)(为)(从)(就)(业)(供)(求)(总)(量)(来)(看)(,再)(就)(业)(的)(退)(休)(人)(员)(并)(未)(退)(出)(劳)(动)(岗)(位)(,他)(们)(或)(在)(原)(单)(位)(继)(续)(上)(班)(,或)(被)(其)(他)(单)(位)(返)(聘)(,从)(而)(使)(延)(迟)(退)(休)(对)(就)(业)(岗)(位)(的)(影)(响)(打)(了)(较)(大)(折)(扣)(。  其)(二)(,“小)(步)(渐)(进)(”的)(延)(迟)(退)(休)(方)(式)(,必)(然)(降)(低)(其)(对)(就)(业)(的)(影)(响)(。如)(果)(每)(年)(延)(迟)(4个)(月)(,则)(每)(延)(迟)(一)(人)(退)(休)(,当)(年)(影)(响)(的)(只)(是)(1/3个)(就)(业)(岗)(位)(。因)(此)(,小)(步)(渐)(进)(既)(是)(为)(了)(维)(护)(延)(迟)(退)(休)(的)(公)(正)(性)(,也)(是)(为)(了)(有)(效)(控)(制)(其)(对)(就)(业)(岗)(位)(的)(冲)(击)(。  其)(三)(,“女)(先)(男)(后)(”的)(政)(策)(取)(向)(,是)(先)(从)(低)(龄)(退)(休)(的)(女)(性)(开)(始)(,而)(男)(性)(与)(符)(合)(60岁)(退)(休)(的)(女)(性)(先)(不)(延)(迟)(,所)(波)(及)(的)(范)(围)(并)(非)(是)(全)(体)(劳)(动)(者)(同)(步)(,这)(将)(既)(有)(利)(于)(缩)(小)(不)(同)(群)(体)(之)(间)(过)(大)(的)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(差)(距)(,又)(可)(以)(减)(弱)(现)(阶)(段)(延)(迟)(退)(休)(对)(就)(业)(岗)(位)(的)(总)(体)(影)(响)(。  其)(四)(,延)(迟)(退)(休)(还)(应)(当)(允)(许)(一)(定)(的)(弹)(性)(,一)(部)(分)(劳)(动)(者)(可)(以)(灵)(活)(选)(择)(。国)(家)(可)(以)(规)(定)(一)(个)(基)(准)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(,但)(对)(重)(体)(力)(劳)(动)(者)(、身)(体)(不)(适)(劳)(动)(者)(应)(当)(允)(许)(有)(一)(定)(的)(灵)(活)(性)(;同)(时)(,对)(缴)(纳)(养)(老)(保)(险)(费)(时)(间)(长)(的)(劳)(动)(者)(也)(应)(当)(赋)(予)(其)(一)(定)(的)(选)(择)(权)(。如)(果)(有)(部)(分)(劳)(动)(者)(选)(择)(灵)(活)(或)(弹)(性)(退)(休)(,亦)(会)(产)(生)(占)(用)(就)(业)(岗)(位)(的)(折)(扣)(。  同)(时)(,近)(几)(年)(来)(,我)(国)(每)(年)(减)(少)(劳)(动)(适)(龄)(人)(口)(几)(百)(万)(是)(客)(观)(事)(实)(,这)(种)(现)(象)(还)(将)(持)(续)(;而)(伴)(随)(产)(业)(结)(构)(的)(发)(展)(变)(化)(,第)(三)(产)(业)(特)(别)(是)(各)(种)(服)(务)(业)(对)(劳)(动)(力)(的)(需)(求)(将)(持)(续)(旺)(盛)(,以)(人)(口)(老)(龄)(化)(加)(速)(行)(进)(下)(的)(养)(老)(服)(务)(、医)(疗)(服)(务)(为)(例)(,所)(需)(要)(的)(就)(业)(人)(口)(将)(以)(千)(万)(计)(,目)(前)(已)(呈)(现)(出)(严)(重)(短)(缺)(现)(象)(。因)(此)(,无)(论)(采)(取)(哪)(一)(种)(人)(口)(结)(构)(变)(化)(预)(测)(方)(式)(,都)(会)(得)(出)(2030年)(后)(劳)(动)(力)(供)(给)(大)(幅)(减)(少)(的)(客)(观)(结)(论)(,延)(迟)(退)(休)(正)(是)(缓)(慢)(适)(应)(未)(来)(就)(业)(人)(口)(不)(足)(的)(需)(要)(。  综)(上)(,我)(认)(为)(延)(迟)(退)(休)(对)(就)(业)(的)(冲)(击)(是)(有)(限)(的)(,当)(前)(就)(业)(领)(域)(需)(要)(高)(度)(重)(视)(的)(应)(当)(是)(伴)(随)(经)(济)(结)(构)(变)(化)(与)(产)(业)(升)(级)(发)(展)(做)(好)(结)(构)(性)(调)(整)(。  3问)( “小)(步)(渐)(进)(”应)(该)(如)(何)(走)(  分)(段)(分)(类)(推)(进)(为)(宜)(;到)(2050年)(基)(准)(提)(至)(65岁)(是)(可)(行)(的)(  记)(者)(:渐)(进)(式)(延)(迟)(退)(休)(应)(“小)(步)(徐)(趋)(、渐)(进)(到)(位)(”,为)(什)(么)(要)(小)(步)(渐)(行)(?  郑)(功)(成)(:我)(们)(的)(主)(张)(是)(“小)(步)(渐)(进)(、女)(先)(男)(后)(,兼)(顾)(特)(殊)(”。只)(有)(小)(步)(渐)(进)(才)(符)(合)(社)(会)(公)(正)(的)(原)(则)(,因)(为)(如)(果)(法)(定)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(调)(整)(幅)(度)(过)(大)(,对)(当)(事)(人)(就)(是)(一)(种)(不)(公)(,小)(步)(前)(行)(则)(可)(以)(使)(每)(个)(人)(受)(到)(的)(影)(响)(基)(本)(一)(致)(,它)(也)(有)(利)(于)(维)(护)(社)(会)(稳)(定)(和)(减)(少)(震)(荡)(。  “女)(先)(男)(后)(”主)(要)(原)(因)(还)(是)(因)(为)(我)(国)(男)(女)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(相)(差)(太)(大)(,男)(性)(60岁)(退)(休)(,女)(职)(工)(50岁)(退)(休)(,女)(干)(部)(55岁)(,两)(者)(相)(差)(10岁)(、5岁)(。这)(么)(大)(的)(差)(距)(,要)(同)(步)(延)(迟)(退)(休)(将)(不)(利)(于)(缩)(小)(差)(距)(,也)(会)(使)(这)(一)(政)(策)(的)(调)(整)(波)(及)(全)(体)(。  “兼)(顾)(特)(殊)(”,强)(调)(调)(整)(法)(定)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(时)(应)(当)(允)(许)(有)(一)(定)(的)(弹)(性)(。如)(允)(许)(工)(作)(年)(限)(长)(、缴)(纳)(养)(老)(保)(险)(费)(时)(间)(长)(的)(劳)(动)(者)(早)(于)(法)(定)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(退)(休)(,其)(实)(是)(对)(学)(历)(偏)(低)(的)(普)(通)(劳)(动)(者)(的)(认)(可)(。  记)(者)(:您)(认)(为)(,理)(想)(延)(迟)(退)(休)(方)(案)(,应)(该)(到)(什)(么)(时)(间)(节)(点)(提)(高)(到)(多)(少)(岁)(?  郑)(功)(成)(:从)(全)(面)(兼)(顾)(、理)(性)(延)(退)(的)(思)(路)(出)(发)(,到)(2050年)(前)(后)(将)(基)(准)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(提)(高)(到)(65岁)(是)(可)(行)(的)(。基)(本)(依)(据)(是)(:我)(国)(人)(均)(预)(期)(寿)(命)(到)(2030年)(为)(80岁)(左)(右)(,根)(据)(现)(在)(年)(均)(减)(少)(劳)(动)(适)(龄)(人)(口)(规)(模)(推)(算)(,2030年)(前)(后)(青)(壮)(劳)(动)(力)(短)(缺)(的)(局)(面)(将)(日)(益)(显)(性)(化)(。  伴)(随)(老)(龄)(化)(的)(加)(速)(行)(进)(,若)(不)(及)(时)(调)(整)(人)(生)(工)(作)(周)(期)(,不)(仅)(会)(直)(接)(损)(害)(代)(际)(养)(老)(负)(担)(的)(公)(平)(,也)(会)(丧)(失)(支)(撑)(国)(民)(经)(济)(持)(续)(发)(展)(的)(人)(力)(资)(源)(;同)(时)(,再)(经)(过)(20—30年)(的)(努)(力)(,我)(国)(工)(业)(化)(、城)(市)(化)(与)(现)(代)(化)(任)(务)(基)(本)(完)(成)(,产)(业)(升)(级)(与)(技)(术)(进)(步)(将)(使)(劳)(动)(强)(度)(大)(为)(减)(轻)(,从)(而)(会)(为)(劳)(动)(者)(工)(作)(更)(长)(时)(间)(创)(造)(相)(应)(的)(条)(件)(。  要)(实)(现)(渐)(进)(目)(标)(,比)(较)(理)(想)(的)(方)(案)(是)(分)(段)(推)(进)(。我)(认)(为)(可)(以)(将)(2020年)(到)(2035年)(定)(为)(一)(段)(,2036年)(到)(2050年)(为)(一)(段)(。前)(一)(阶)(段)(宜)(以)(缩)(小)(男)(女)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(差)(距)(为)(目)(标)(,即)(将)(女)(职)(工)(的)(法)(定)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(从)(50岁)(逐)(步)(提)(至)(55岁)(,女)(干)(部)(则)(允)(许)(自)(愿)(选)(择)(在)(55—60岁)(之)(间)(退)(休)(;后)(一)(阶)(段)(以)(普)(遍)(提)(高)(法)(定)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(为)(目)(标)(,即)(男)(性)(从)(60岁)(提)(高)(到)(65岁)(,女)(职)(工)(从)(55岁)(提)(高)(到)(60岁)(,同)(时)(允)(许)(女)(性)(自)(愿)(选)(择)(到)(65岁)(再)(退)(休)(。  延)(迟)(退)(休)(牵)(涉)(到)(公)(民)(基)(本)(权)(利)(,宜)(由)(国)(家)(立)(法)(机)(关)(做)(出)(决)(定)(。将)(行)(政)(部)(门)(负)(责)(起)(草)(的)(延)(迟)(退)(休)(年)(龄)(政)(策)(提)(交)(全)(国)(人)(大)(常)(委)(会)(审)(议)(,能)(够)(更)(多)(听)(取)(社)(会)(各)(界)(意)(见)(,更)(全)(面)(地)(兼)(顾)(各)(方)(的)(利)(益)(。  作)(者)(:杨)(迪)(来)(源)(人)(民)(网)(-人)(民)(日)(报)()
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